Beverage Selection and Mixology in Nevada

1. What are the signature cocktails of Nevada and how are they prepared?

The state of Nevada has several iconic signature cocktails that are popular among locals and tourists alike. Two of the most well-known beverages that showcase the flavors of Nevada include:

1. The Nevada Mule: This cocktail is a unique spin on the classic Moscow Mule, incorporating local ingredients to give it a distinct Nevada flair. To prepare a Nevada Mule, start by filling a copper mug with ice. Add 2 ounces of Nevada-made vodka, preferably from a local distillery like Las Vegas Distillery or Frey Ranch Distillery. Squeeze the juice of half a lime into the mug, and top it off with ginger beer. Garnish with a lime wheel and fresh mint sprig for a refreshing cocktail that perfectly captures the spirit of Nevada.

2. The Silver State Martini: This elegant cocktail pays homage to Nevada’s nickname as the “Silver State” due to its history of silver mining. To make a Silver State Martini, pour 2 ounces of your favorite Nevada-made gin into a mixing glass with ice. Add a splash of dry vermouth and stir until well-chilled. Strain the mixture into a chilled martini glass and garnish with a twist of lemon peel or a silver-coated olive for a sophisticated and luxurious cocktail that embodies the essence of Nevada.

These signature cocktails are perfect choices for those looking to experience the unique flavors and history of Nevada in a memorable and delicious way.

2. How has the craft beer scene evolved in Nevada over the past decade?

The craft beer scene in Nevada has experienced significant growth and evolution over the past decade. Several key factors have contributed to this transformation:

1. Expansion of Breweries: Over the past decade, the number of craft breweries in Nevada has increased substantially. This growth has led to a wider variety of beer styles and flavors being available to consumers throughout the state.

2. Community Support: The craft beer community in Nevada has become more organized and supportive over the years. Beer festivals, tasting events, and brewery tours have become more popular, fostering a sense of camaraderie among brewers and enthusiasts alike.

3. Emphasis on Quality: Craft breweries in Nevada have placed a strong emphasis on quality and creativity in their beer production. This commitment to excellence has helped raise the overall standard of craft beer in the state.

Overall, the craft beer scene in Nevada has evolved into a vibrant and dynamic industry, attracting both locals and tourists alike. With a diverse range of breweries and a growing appreciation for quality craft beer, Nevada has established itself as a prominent player in the craft beer world.

3. What are the top 5 wineries to visit in Nevada for wine enthusiasts?

1. Pahrump Valley Winery: Located in the scenic town of Pahrump, Nevada, this winery is one of the top destinations for wine enthusiasts in the state. Known for its award-winning wines and beautiful vineyard views, Pahrump Valley Winery offers guided tours, tastings, and a charming atmosphere for visitors to enjoy.

2. Churchill Vineyards: Situated in Fallon, Nevada, Churchill Vineyards is another must-visit winery for wine enthusiasts. This family-owned winery specializes in producing high-quality wines made from estate-grown grapes. Visitors can enjoy tastings, tours of the vineyard, and learn about the winemaking process from the passionate owners.

3. Tahoe Ridge Winery: Located in the picturesque Lake Tahoe region, Tahoe Ridge Winery is a popular destination for wine lovers looking to combine stunning views with great wine. The winery offers tastings of their handcrafted wines, including unique varietals that reflect the character of the region.

4. Pahrump Valley Winery & Symphony’s Restaurant: This unique establishment in Pahrump offers not only exceptional wines but also a gourmet dining experience at Symphony’s Restaurant. Wine enthusiasts can indulge in a meal paired with wines from the winery, creating a memorable culinary and wine experience.

5. Basin and Range Cellar: Based in Reno, Basin and Range Cellar is a boutique winery known for its small-batch, artisanal wines that showcase the terroir of Nevada. Wine enthusiasts can visit the tasting room to sample a variety of wines made with a focus on quality and craftsmanship, making it a hidden gem for those seeking unique wine experiences in the state.

4. How has Nevada embraced the trend of craft distilleries in recent years?

Nevada has indeed seen a rise in the popularity and presence of craft distilleries in recent years. These small, independent distilleries have gained traction in the state, offering unique and handcrafted spirits that cater to a growing demand for high-quality and locally-produced beverages. Craft distilleries in Nevada have focused on producing a wide range of products, including whiskey, gin, vodka, and rum, utilizing locally-sourced ingredients to create distinct flavors and profiles. The state has also seen an increase in distillery tours, tastings, and events, attracting both locals and tourists interested in exploring the burgeoning spirits scene. Additionally, Nevada has been supportive of legislation and regulations that promote the growth of craft distilleries, providing opportunities for these businesses to thrive and contribute to the state’s vibrant beverage industry.

5. What are the unique local ingredients used in beverages in Nevada and how are they incorporated?

In Nevada, there are several unique local ingredients that are commonly used in beverages to showcase the flavors of the region. Some of these ingredients include:

1. Sagebrush: Sagebrush is a native plant to the Nevada desert and is often used in beverages for its earthy and aromatic qualities. It can be infused into syrups or used as a garnish in cocktails for a touch of local flavor.

2. Juniper berries: Juniper berries grow abundantly in Nevada and are a key ingredient in making gin. They offer a piney and slightly citrusy flavor that can be infused into spirits or used as a garnish in cocktails for a hint of local terroir.

3. Honey: Nevada is home to numerous bee farms, making honey a popular local ingredient in beverages. Honey can be used as a natural sweetener in cocktails, drizzled over drinks for added sweetness, or even incorporated into syrups for a unique flavor profile.

These local ingredients are incorporated into beverages in Nevada through various methods such as infusions, muddling, syrups, and garnishes. Mixologists and bartenders in the state often take advantage of these unique flavors to create innovative and regionally-inspired cocktails that highlight the distinct taste of Nevada.

6. How has the coffee culture in Nevada influenced the beverage industry?

The coffee culture in Nevada has played a significant role in influencing the beverage industry in several ways:

1. Increased Demand for Specialty Coffee: The rise of coffee shops and cafes in Nevada, particularly in cities like Las Vegas and Reno, has led to a growing demand for specialty coffee beverages. Consumers are becoming more discerning about their coffee choices, seeking out unique brewing methods, single origin beans, and artisanal roasts.

2. Innovation in Coffee Drinks: Nevada’s coffee culture has inspired innovation in coffee drinks, with local cafes and bars creating signature concoctions that blend traditional espresso with unique flavor profiles and ingredients. This creativity has influenced the broader beverage industry, encouraging mixologists to experiment with coffee as a base ingredient in cocktails and mocktails.

3. Emphasis on Quality and Sustainability: Coffee culture in Nevada has also placed a spotlight on the importance of quality and sustainability in beverage sourcing. Consumers are now more conscious of where their coffee beans come from, how they are harvested, and the impact of their purchasing decisions on local and global communities. This focus on ethical sourcing has extended to other beverages, shaping consumer preferences for products that are responsibly produced and environmentally friendly.

Overall, the coffee culture in Nevada has had a significant influence on the beverage industry by driving demand for specialty drinks, inspiring innovation in recipes, and promoting values of quality and sustainability across various beverage categories.

7. What are the traditional beverages that are a part of Nevada’s cultural heritage?

Nevada’s cultural heritage is rich and diverse, with a blend of influences from Native American, Hispanic, and pioneering traditions. Some traditional beverages that are a part of Nevada’s cultural heritage include:

1. Basque Cider: Basque immigrants who settled in Nevada brought with them their tradition of cider making. Basque cider is often enjoyed during Basque festivals and gatherings in areas like Reno and Gardnerville.

2. Prickly Pear Margaritas: The prickly pear cactus grows abundantly in the desert regions of Nevada, and its fruits are often used in cocktails like margaritas. This unique drink combines the flavors of prickly pear with tequila and lime juice.

3. Sagebrush Tea: Sagebrush is a plant that is native to Nevada and has long been used by Native American tribes for its aromatic and medicinal properties. Sagebrush tea is a traditional herbal infusion that is believed to have various health benefits.

4. Picon Punch: This cocktail has roots in Nevada’s Basque community and is made with a mix of amer, a type of bitter liqueur, grenadine, and brandy, typically served over ice with a twist of lemon.

5. Nevada Craft Beers: Nevada has a growing craft beer scene, with breweries producing unique and innovative beers that reflect the state’s culture and landscape. Beers like the Great Basin Brewing Company’s Ichthyosaur “Icky” IPA have become local favorites.

These traditional beverages are a reflection of Nevada’s cultural diversity and the influence of its native and immigrant populations. They offer a taste of the state’s history and heritage, making them an important part of Nevada’s culinary and beverage landscape.

8. What are the top 10 bars and lounges in Nevada known for their innovative mixology?

1. The Dorsey at The Venetian in Las Vegas is known for its stylish decor and creative cocktails crafted by expert mixologists. The menu features unique concoctions using high-quality spirits and fresh ingredients.

2. Velveteen Rabbit in Las Vegas is a trendy cocktail bar with a focus on seasonal and locally sourced ingredients. Their menu changes frequently to showcase innovative flavor combinations.

3. Herbs & Rye in Las Vegas is a classic cocktail bar with a retro vibe, known for its extensive selection of classic and modern cocktails. The skilled bartenders here can whip up any drink your heart desires.

4. Commonwealth in Las Vegas is a multi-level cocktail bar with a rooftop patio, offering an impressive selection of craft cocktails and an energetic atmosphere.

5. Vesper Bar at The Cosmopolitan in Las Vegas is a sleek and sophisticated bar known for its inventive cocktail menu and impeccable service. The bartenders here are skilled at creating both classic and contemporary drinks.

6. The Laundry Room in Las Vegas is a hidden speakeasy located within Commonwealth, known for its intimate ambiance and bespoke cocktails tailored to each guest’s preferences.

7. ReBAR in Las Vegas is a unique bar and vintage shop combination that offers a wide range of craft cocktails made using locally sourced ingredients.

8. The Chandelier at The Cosmopolitan in Las Vegas is a stunning three-story bar that offers a variety of innovative and visually appealing cocktails served in a glamorous setting.

9. Juniper Cocktail Lounge in Las Vegas is a chic and sophisticated bar known for its creative cocktails that incorporate unique flavors and ingredients.

10. The Underground at The Mob Museum in Las Vegas offers a Prohibition-era experience with craft cocktails inspired by the 1920s. This hidden gem bar is known for its immersive atmosphere and historical cocktails.

9. How has the farm-to-table movement impacted the beverage selection in Nevada’s restaurants?

The farm-to-table movement has had a significant impact on beverage selection in Nevada’s restaurants. Here are some key ways in which this movement has influenced the drinks served in these establishments:

1. Increased focus on local ingredients: The farm-to-table philosophy places a strong emphasis on using locally sourced, fresh ingredients in culinary creations. This has extended to the beverage menu as well, with many restaurants in Nevada sourcing local fruits, herbs, and other ingredients for their cocktails and mocktails.

2. Seasonal rotations: Just as the food menu changes with the seasons to showcase the freshest produce, the beverage selection in farm-to-table restaurants in Nevada often rotates based on seasonal availability. This ensures that guests can enjoy drinks that are not only delicious but also reflective of the time of year.

3. Emphasis on sustainability: The farm-to-table movement prioritizes sustainability and supporting local farmers and producers. Many restaurants in Nevada have aligned their beverage selection with these values by offering drinks made with eco-friendly spirits, natural wines, and other sustainable ingredients.

Overall, the farm-to-table movement has encouraged a more thoughtful and locally-driven approach to beverage selection in Nevada’s restaurants, offering guests a taste of the region’s unique flavors and supporting the community in the process.

10. What are the popular non-alcoholic beverage trends currently seen in Nevada?

In Nevada, there are several popular non-alcoholic beverage trends that have been gaining traction in recent years. These trends cater to those looking for refreshing and unique options beyond just soda or water. Some of the popular non-alcoholic beverage trends currently seen in Nevada include:

1. Mocktails: Mocktails are non-alcoholic cocktails that are expertly crafted to mimic the flavors and presentation of traditional cocktails. They often include a combination of juices, syrups, herbs, and garnishes to create a sophisticated and refreshing beverage option.

2. Cold Brew Coffee: Cold brew coffee has become increasingly popular for those looking for a caffeine boost without the bitterness of traditional hot coffee. This beverage trend involves steeping coffee grounds in cold water for an extended period of time, resulting in a smooth and rich coffee that can be enjoyed on its own or mixed with other ingredients.

3. Craft Soda: Craft sodas have been making a comeback in Nevada, with many establishments offering artisanal sodas made with high-quality ingredients and unique flavor combinations. These sodas appeal to those looking for a more elevated and flavorful alternative to mainstream soft drinks.

4. Kombucha: Kombucha, a fermented tea beverage, has also been on the rise in Nevada. Known for its probiotic properties and tangy flavor profile, kombucha is a popular choice for health-conscious consumers looking for a refreshing and gut-friendly beverage option.

Overall, these non-alcoholic beverage trends reflect a growing interest in creative and high-quality drink options that cater to a wide range of tastes and preferences in Nevada.

11. How has Nevada’s climate influenced the type of beverages consumed by its residents?

Nevada’s climate, characterized by hot and arid conditions, has significantly influenced the type of beverages consumed by its residents in several ways:

1. Hydration: Given the high temperatures and low humidity levels in Nevada, residents often opt for refreshing and hydrating beverages to combat dehydration. This includes a preference for water, iced teas, and sports drinks to stay cool and well-hydrated.

2. Alcoholic Beverages: Cocktails that are light and refreshing tend to be popular choices in Nevada, especially in cities like Las Vegas where the nightlife is vibrant. Beverages like margaritas, mojitos, and gin and tonics are commonly enjoyed due to their ability to provide relief from the heat.

3. Coffee and Energy Drinks: Due to the early mornings and active lifestyles of many Nevadans, coffee and energy drinks are also consumed in higher quantities in the state. These beverages provide a boost of energy and help residents combat fatigue caused by the desert climate.

In conclusion, Nevada’s climate plays a crucial role in shaping the beverage preferences of its residents, leading to a focus on hydration, refreshing cocktails, and energy-boosting drinks to navigate the challenges posed by the arid environment.

12. What are the sustainability practices adopted by beverage establishments in Nevada to reduce their environmental impact?

1. Many beverage establishments in Nevada have adopted sustainability practices to reduce their environmental impact. One common practice is the use of biodegradable or compostable cups, straws, and other serving materials to minimize single-use plastic waste. This helps in reducing the carbon footprint of these establishments.

2. Another sustainability practice is the sourcing of local and organic ingredients for beverages, such as fruits, herbs, and other ingredients used in cocktails and other drinks. By supporting local producers, beverage establishments can reduce transportation emissions and promote local economies.

3. Some establishments have implemented energy-efficient lighting and equipment in their facilities to reduce electricity consumption. This helps in lowering energy bills and decreasing their overall environmental impact.

4. Water conservation is also a key focus for many beverage establishments in Nevada. They may implement water-saving practices such as installing low-flow faucets and encouraging customers to bring their reusable water bottles.

5. Additionally, some establishments explore opportunities for recycling and waste management to minimize their overall waste output. This may include segregating and recycling glass bottles, cans, and other recyclable materials.

Overall, these sustainability practices adopted by beverage establishments in Nevada play a crucial role in reducing their environmental impact and promoting a more eco-friendly approach to the beverage industry.

13. What are the regulations surrounding the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages in Nevada?

In Nevada, the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages are regulated by the Nevada Department of Taxation’s Alcoholic Beverage Control Division. Some of the key regulations include:

1. Licensing: Individuals and businesses involved in the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages must obtain the appropriate licenses from the Alcoholic Beverage Control Division.

2. Minimum Age Requirements: It is illegal to sell or serve alcoholic beverages to individuals under the age of 21 in Nevada.

3. Hours of Sale: The sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted to certain hours. For example, most establishments cannot sell alcohol between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m.

4. Advertising: There are regulations in place regarding the advertising of alcoholic beverages, including restrictions on targeting minors in advertisements.

5. Distribution: Alcoholic beverages must be distributed through licensed distributors who adhere to specific regulations.

6. DUI Laws: Nevada has strict laws related to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol, with severe penalties for offenders.

7. Happy Hour Regulations: Nevada prohibits certain types of happy hour promotions that involve discounted or free drinks to encourage excessive consumption.

These regulations are in place to ensure the responsible sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages in Nevada, promoting public safety and health. It is important for businesses and individuals involved in the industry to comply with these regulations to avoid legal consequences.

14. How have mixologists in Nevada been incorporating local flavors into their cocktail creations?

Mixologists in Nevada have been incorporating local flavors into their cocktail creations in various innovative ways to enhance the drinking experience and showcase the unique tastes of the region. Here are some ways they have been doing so:

1. Utilizing local spirits: Many mixologists in Nevada have been using locally distilled spirits as the base for their cocktails. This not only supports local distilleries but also adds a distinct flavor profile that is representative of the region.

2. Incorporating native fruits and herbs: Mixologists have been sourcing ingredients such as prickly pear, sage, and desert fruits from local farms and markets to infuse their cocktails with a taste of Nevada’s natural surroundings.

3. Experimenting with regional spices and bitters: Some mixologists have been incorporating spices and bitters that are unique to the Nevada area, adding depth and complexity to their cocktails while paying homage to the local culinary traditions.

4. Collaborating with local businesses: Mixologists have been collaborating with local breweries, wineries, and other beverage producers to create signature cocktails that highlight the diverse offerings of the Nevada beverage scene.

Overall, the trend of incorporating local flavors into cocktail creations in Nevada not only adds a sense of place to the drinking experience but also supports the thriving local food and beverage industry in the state.

15. What are the emerging trends in beverage selection for events and gatherings in Nevada?

In Nevada, there are several emerging trends in beverage selection for events and gatherings that event planners and hosts should take note of. Here are some key trends to consider:

1. Local and Craft Beverages: Consumers are increasingly interested in supporting local businesses and experiencing unique, handcrafted beverages. This trend is driving the popularity of local breweries, wineries, and distilleries, with many event planners opting to showcase these artisanal options at their gatherings.

2. Health-Conscious Choices: As more people prioritize health and wellness, there is a growing demand for low-sugar, low-calorie, and natural beverage options. This includes a rise in mocktails, fresh juices, and organic teas being offered at events in Nevada.

3. Sustainable Practices: Sustainability is a major concern for many consumers, leading event planners to seek out eco-friendly beverage options for their events. This can include biodegradable cups, paper straws, and beverages served in reusable containers to reduce waste.

4. Experiential and Interactive Elements: To enhance the overall event experience, interactive beverage stations and mixology classes are becoming increasingly popular in Nevada. Guests enjoy the opportunity to create their own cocktails or participate in tasting sessions led by beverage experts.

5. Global Flavors and Fusion: Nevada’s diverse population and vibrant culinary scene have inspired a trend towards incorporating global flavors and fusion beverages into event menus. This includes cocktails featuring exotic ingredients, unique flavor combinations, and international spirits.

By incorporating these emerging trends into beverage selection for events and gatherings in Nevada, hosts can create memorable experiences that cater to the preferences and interests of their guests.

16. How has the cocktail culture in Nevada evolved in response to changing consumer preferences?

The cocktail culture in Nevada has evolved significantly in response to changing consumer preferences over the years.

1. Craft Cocktails: There has been a shift towards craft cocktails, with bartenders focusing on creativity, quality ingredients, and unique flavor combinations. Mixologists are constantly innovating and experimenting with new techniques and ingredients to create bespoke cocktails that cater to the evolving tastes of consumers.

2. Locally Sourced Ingredients: Consumers are increasingly interested in knowing where their ingredients come from and are seeking locally sourced and sustainable options. In response, many bars and restaurants in Nevada have started sourcing ingredients from local farms and producers to create fresh and environmentally conscious cocktails.

3. Health-Conscious Choices: With a growing focus on health and wellness, consumers are opting for lighter and lower-calorie cocktail options. As a result, bartenders are incorporating fresh juices, herbal infusions, and natural sweeteners to create healthier cocktail choices that still deliver on taste and flavor.

4. Diversity in Spirits: The demand for diverse spirit options has also influenced the cocktail culture in Nevada. Consumers are exploring a wider range of spirits beyond traditional options like vodka and rum, including artisanal gins, craft bourbons, and unique liqueurs. This has led to a greater variety of cocktails being offered on menus to cater to different spirit preferences.

5. Cultural Influences: Nevada’s cocktail culture has been influenced by a diverse range of cultural influences, leading to the incorporation of international flavors and techniques in cocktail creations. From Latin American-inspired tequila cocktails to Asian-inspired sake infusions, bartenders are drawing inspiration from global trends to craft unique and enticing drinks for consumers.

Overall, the cocktail culture in Nevada has evolved to embrace creativity, quality, sustainability, diversity, and cultural influences in response to changing consumer preferences. Bartenders and mixologists continue to push the boundaries of traditional cocktail-making to cater to the evolving tastes and preferences of consumers in the state.

17. What are the traditional brewing techniques used by beer makers in Nevada?

In Nevada, traditional brewing techniques are utilized by beer makers to create unique and flavorful brews. Some of the key brewing techniques employed in Nevada include:

1. Mashing: The process of steeping malted grains in hot water to activate enzymes and convert starches into fermentable sugars.

2. Boiling: After mashing, the wort (liquid extracted from the grains) is boiled with hops to add bitterness, aroma, and flavor to the beer.

3. Fermentation: The boiled wort is cooled and yeast is added to start fermentation, where sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

4. Aging: Some beers undergo a period of aging to allow flavors to meld and develop before packaging and serving.

5. Carbonation: Carbonation can occur naturally during fermentation or be added artificially before packaging.

These traditional brewing techniques, along with modern innovations, contribute to the diverse range of beers produced in Nevada, showcasing the creativity and skill of local brewers in the state.

18. How do beverage establishments in Nevada cater to the growing demand for health-conscious options?

Beverage establishments in Nevada have been increasingly catering to the growing demand for health-conscious options in a variety of ways:

1. Offering a wide selection of low-calorie and non-alcoholic beverages such as infused waters, herbal teas, and natural fruit juices to provide healthier alternatives to sugary drinks.

2. Providing organic and locally sourced ingredients for cocktails and beverages to meet the demand for transparency and sustainability in the food and beverage industry.

3. Developing specialized menus that feature drink options with reduced sugar content and artificial additives, appealing to customers seeking healthier alternatives while still enjoying a night out.

4. Incorporating superfoods and adaptogens into beverages such as smoothies and wellness shots to boost nutritional value and cater to customers looking for functional beverages that offer health benefits.

5. Partnering with nutritionists and health experts to create beverage options that cater to specific dietary needs and preferences, ensuring that guests with dietary restrictions or health goals can find suitable options when dining out.

Overall, beverage establishments in Nevada are proactively responding to the growing demand for health-conscious options by diversifying their menus, sourcing high-quality ingredients, and collaborating with health professionals to offer a range of beverages that cater to the evolving preferences of health-conscious consumers.

19. What role do beverage festivals play in promoting local producers in Nevada?

Beverage festivals play a crucial role in promoting local producers in Nevada by providing a platform for these producers to showcase their products to a wider audience. Through these festivals, local beverage producers can gain exposure and recognition among consumers, retailers, and other industry professionals. They create opportunities for networking, collaboration, and partnerships that can further elevate the profile of these producers and help them expand their reach within the state and beyond. Beverage festivals also serve as a way to educate consumers about the diversity and quality of local beverages available in Nevada, contributing to a sense of pride and support for the local industry. Overall, these events help to stimulate interest and demand for locally produced beverages, driving economic growth and sustainability for producers in the region.

20. How do beverage professionals in Nevada stay updated on the latest industry trends and innovations?

Beverage professionals in Nevada stay updated on the latest industry trends and innovations through various means, including:

1. Industry Conferences and Trade Shows: Attending events like the Nightclub & Bar Show in Las Vegas or the Las Vegas Bar & Nightclub Convention provides professionals with opportunities to learn about new products, techniques, and trends in the beverage industry.

2. Training and Certification Programs: Beverage professionals can enhance their knowledge and skills by enrolling in training programs or obtaining certifications such as those offered by the Wine & Spirit Education Trust (WSET) or the BarSmarts program.

3. Networking: Establishing connections with other industry professionals, participating in tasting events, and joining industry organizations like the Nevada Bar & Nightclub Association can help professionals stay informed about the latest trends and innovations.

4. Beverage Publications and Websites: Subscribing to industry publications like “Bar Business Magazine” or following websites like the Beverage Industry News can provide valuable insights into emerging trends and innovations in the beverage industry.

By actively engaging in these strategies, beverage professionals in Nevada can ensure they are up-to-date on the latest industry trends and innovations, helping them stay competitive and deliver exceptional experiences to their customers.